|Darlingford Memorial and Park
The magnitude of human loss and suffering during the Great War resulted in the erection of memorial cenotaphs, statuary and tablets throughout Manitoba. In 1921 Darlingford and the surrounding district commemorated their military efforts by constructing this small Gothic-inspired memorial building and park. It is the only free-standing memorial building in Manitoba with the sole function of commemorating the war dead. Inside the memorial, two black marble tablets bear the names of the 199 local veterans and victims of World Wars I and II.
The tranquil setting of the memorial and park evokes a spirit of hope and remembrance in stark contrast with the battlefields of Europe. It was the inspiration of Ferris Bolton, a pioneer farmer and politician from Darlingford, whose three sons were killed in France in 1917. The memorial was designed by Arthur A. Stoughton, the first head of the School of Architecture, University of Manitoba. The Morden Experimental Farm designed and landscaped the park. Dr. W.R. Leslie, the Farm's superintendent, tended the park for many years.
|Brandon Citizen's Science Building
270 - 18th Street,
The Brandon Hall wing of the Knowles-Douglas Student Centre was constructed as the Brandon Citizen's Science Building in 1922–23. The building was to have been part of a larger science complex, but further construction was halted due to financial constraints at that time. Built of locally produced brick and Manitoba limestone, Brandon Hall is the third of Brandon University's three original buildings. In contrast to the Romanesque styling of Brandon College and Clark Hall, the Science Building's Late-Gothic style, with its steep pointed roof and strong vertical features, make the structure seem taller than its three-and-half storeys and, as a result, the building fronts onto 18th Street with considerable prominence.
The Brandon Citizen's Science Building was designed by Brandon architect David Marshall, and constructed by the Ebeneezer Claydon Company of Winnipeg. It was financed through private subscriptions in Brandon and throughout western Canada. The structure is an rare example of Late Gothic style architecture in Manitoba and an important architectural and historical landmark in the development of public education in Manitoba.
|St. Matthew's Anglican Cathedral
403 Thirteenth Street,
From 1900 until the outbreak in 1914 of World War I, new buildings in Manitoba became the most visible manifestation of prosperity and optimism. In church designs there were some dramatic advances. Church buildings were more often being built of brick or stone and there was increasing experimentation with spatial arrangements. In Anglican churches, the traditional scheme of nave, porch, chancel and vestry was being combined with spaces for community activities and Sunday Schools.
Built in 1912–13 to designs by Brandon architect W.A. Elliott, and constructed by the firm of William Bell and Son, this cathedral church of the Diocese of Brandon expresses the tenor of the times. The English Gothic Revival style chosen by Elliott is here a carefully modelled mass of limestone and brick, with a complex floor plan, variety of rooflines, crenellations and tall lancet windows. The interior is particularly beautiful, with a sophisticated use of forms, which combine the demands of structure, function and tradition into a unified whole.
|Old Kildonan Presbyterian Church
201 John Black Avenue,
In 1854 this, the first Presbyterian church in Western Canada, was completed. It was erected under the direction of the Reverend John Black, the first resident Presbyterian minister in the West. Black came to Kildonan in 1851, 37 years after the arrival of the first Presbyterian settlers from Scotland. Prior to this event the settlers attended Church of England services.
Duncan McRae, an important Red River stonemason, supervised the construction. Like other surviving stone churches from this era—St. Andrew's Anglican (1844–49), St. Peter's Anglican (1852–53), St. Clement's Anglican (1862–63) and Little Britain United (1872–74)— this building's design is derived from the small parish churches of Great Britain. The old country examples, with their rough stone walls, pointed windows, and gable roof, were recreated in this province. A distinctive façade design was also undertaken in each of these Manitoba landmarks. At Kildonan Presbyterian a bell tower of delicate design once rose from the roof.
|St. John the Divine Anglican Church
102 - 4th Street,
This Anglican Church was built in 1882 to serve a small group of English settlers who had arrived in the district the previous summer. Located approximately 22 km south of Brandon, the hamlet eventually took its name from its first postmaster, Samuel Rounthwaite. The church was completed under the direction of Reverend John Frederick Rounthwaite, Samuel's brother. In 1890, the hamlet and church were moved 2 km west to be on the newly built Northern Pacific and Manitoba Railway. Over the years the congregation dwindled and in the autumn of 1982, after a hundred years of service, the church was formally closed. In 2002 the Church was moved to its current site in Wawanesa.
St. John the Divine is one of the oldest Anglican churches in Manitoba, and its pointed windows, vertical proportions and fine interior details make it an exemplary example of High Victorian taste. In the 1930s, some alterations were made to the exterior, including the addition of new siding and the removal of the clerestory dormer windows. The interior, however, remains virtually unchanged from the 1880s and features a barrel vault ceiling, an ornate wood-burning stove and many original furnishings.
|Manitoba Agricultural College
139 Tuxedo Avenue,
In 1906 the Provincial Government established the Manitoba Agricultural College to educate students in the practices of farming. It was the first college of its kind in Western Canada, and only the third in the country. Samuel Hooper, the first Provincial Architect, designed the original College buildings, setting them in a formal Edwardian plan, in which the buildings were arrayed around a long oval drive. By 1913 the College had outgrown this campus. It was relocated to a new Fort Garry site, which later became the campus of the University of Manitoba.
From 1914 until 1917 this site was used by the Manitoba School for the Deaf, the first such institution in Western Canada. In 1917 it was transformed into a military convalescent hospital for wounded soldiers returning from Europe. In 1919 the army took over the entire complex, renaming it Fort Osborne Barracks. It remained the primary army base in Manitoba until 1968, when new barracks were constructed farther south. The Province re-acquired the property and converted a number of buildings to house government departments.
The property was again sold, and in 1997 the site was redeveloped as the Asper Jewish Community Campus of Winnipeg, returning to its educational roots.
|Clearwater Canadian Pacific Railway Water Tower
The railway water tower is a rare vestige from the age of the steam-powered locomotive. The "Standard Number One Plan," developed by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in 1903, replaced the low, round, towers in use since 1882. The new octagonal tower quickly became part of the Manitoba landscape, with 75 constructed from 1904–1925.
The Clearwater tower is a fully operational "Standard Number One Plan." The slightly modified interior retains a cedar-lined tank with a capacity for 181,840 litres (40,000 gallons) of water. This formidable weight rests on a framework of large supporting timbers. A coal-burning boiler powered a water pump that prevented water from freezing. A ball or "float", glided along a pole atop the tower to indicate the level of the water inside. In 1957, when railway companies converted to diesel-power, water towers became obsolete. This tower still provides water for Clearwater and area residents.
|Gabel's General Store
The former H. Gabel's General Store is one of the best surviving examples of a classic boomtown-style country store. It was constructed in 1929-31 for its owners, Henry and Mary Gabel, who operated the store until it closed in 1975. The enterprise survived the competition of mail-order companies and franchise chains, because of the nature of the local market in which it operated.
The store was designed by Roy Millbrant of Beausejour and built with the assistance of Steve Chipilski of Ladywood. The two-storey wood-frame structure, with a verandah and second-storey balcony, is clad in drop siding. A false-front with a stepped-gable pediment and dormer windows give additional height to the building. Tongue and groove maple floors and ceiling, oak columns, display cases, weigh scale, vault, cash box and wooden drink cooler are original to the former store.
|Commonwealth Air Training Plan Hangar
Brandon Municipal Airport,
SE 12-11-19 WPM
The Commonwealth Air Training Plan Hangar, built in 1941, recalls Canada's important contribution to the Allied war effort during World War II, through its associations with the Commonwealth Air Training Plan.
On December 17, 1939, the "Agreement Relating to the Training of Pilots and Aircraft Crews in Canada and their Subsequent Service" was signed among Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand, making Canada the focus of a British Commonwealth-wide plan to instruct Commonwealth aircrew. It was a major Canadian contribution to the Allied war effort and to Allied air superiority in World War II, and an impressive national achievement. At the Plan's peak, there were 107 schools and 184 ancillary units at 231 sites in nine provinces. The aircraft establishment stood at 10,906 and the ground organization at 104,113 men and women. The Plan lasted until March 31, 1945, and was called the "Aerodrome of Democracy" by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the United States.
The former Brandon Hangar #1 is especially important, not only because it is virtually intact, but because it now functions as a museum devoted to preserving the history and artifacts of the Plan, including several vintage training aircraft.
|Old St. James Anglican Church
540 Tylehurst Street,
In 1850, Reverend W.H. Taylor was instructed by the Bishop of Rupert's Land, The Right Reverend David Anderson, to establish a church for the settlement expanding westward along the banks of the Assiniboine River.
On June 8, 1853 the cornerstone of the new church was laid and by the end of the year the large log building was completed. Located on high ground, this site was chosen for its association in the minds of the settlers with shelter and deliverance from the devastating spring floods of 1826 and 1853. Consecrated as St. James Church on May 29, 1855, it became the focal point of settlement along the Assiniboine River and gave its name to the surrounding area.
St. James Anglican Church is one of the oldest buildings in Winnipeg, and the oldest surviving wooden church in Western Canada. In 1922, a large contemporary style replacement for Saint James Church was constructed nearby. Old Saint James Church, however, continues to be used for supplementary summer services and weddings.
|Camp Hughes Military Training Site
NE 34-10-16 W, 10 kms west of Carberry,
R.M. of North Cypress
The open landscape close to the Canadian Pacific Railway's main line made this site attractive for summer training camps for artillery, infantry and cavalry units. Established as Sewell Camp in 1909, it was renamed after Major-General Sir Sam Hughes, Canada's Minister of Militia and Defence, in 1915. During World War I (1914–1918), more than 38,000 troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force trained there. Many of the soldiers later distinguished themselves at the battle of Vimy Ridge, in April 1917.
Extensive trench systems, grenade and rifle ranges, and military structures were built in 1915 and 1916. A variety of retail stores on a double-avenued area close to the main camp formed a lively commercial midway. Camp Hughes was dismantled in the 1930s as part of an unemployment relief project.
|Minnedosa Agricultural Society Display Building
Minnedosa Heritage Village
By providing a showcase for local agricultural innovation and new farming technologies, agricultural societies, and the fairs they organized, were an important element in the success of Manitoba's agricultural community. The annual agricultural fair was also a vital social institution, often second in importance only to the church for facilitating interaction and hosting community events.
Constructed in 1904, the Old Minnedosa Agricultural Society Display Building is a good example of the type. Its open interior spaces provided ample space for the display of displays and products. The standard construction seen outside-wood frame-is exposed inside, where exposed rafters in the cupola create a visually complex structure. The Display Building is one of only a few remaining Manitoba buildings designed on an octagonal plan. That eight-sided plan was very popular between 1880 and 1910, especially in the United States. The form was thought to be more efficient than rectangular plans, both in terms of construction costs and in providing better ventilation and lighting. While used on all manners of buildings-houses, farm outbuildings, public buildings-in Manitoba the octagon was seen mostly on a few barns and display buildings.
|Brandon Mental Health Centre Nurses' Residence
N 1/2 of 25-10-19 WPM,
The Brandon Mental Health Centre was established in 1891, and through time a number of very large buildings were added to the site, including the Valleyview Building, Pineridge Building, Nurses' Residence, Parkland Building, plus numerous ancillary buildings. The Nurses' Residence at the Brandon Mental Health Centre was constructed in 1921-23 to the designs of architects Jordan and Over, important Winnipeg architects. Compared to the other buildings at the site, the Nurses' Residence marked a new way of thinking about mental health care, particularly regarding the main providers of the service, the nurses. While the other major buildings at the site are huge, grand and formal, the Nurses' Residence is informal and welcoming. Its angled entrance wings, balconies and delightful portico, and its carefully appointed interior, with decorative stonework, mosaic tiling, decorative plaster moldings, fine woodwork, and mural paintings combined to make the building an exceptional piece of design and a tonic for the hard-working residents.
|Knox Presbyterian Church
396 First Street,
Manitoba's dramatic growth in the 1880s and 1890s brought equally dramatic changes to church architecture. Churches built during the earlier Red River Settlement era (pre-1870) were sturdy, simple buildings, with designs based upon ancient traditions. The arrival in Manitoba of trained architects to the new province ushered in a new sophistication of design.
Knox Presbyterian is an excellent example of the evolution of the Romanesque Revival style. It features rusticated stone surfaces, round-arched windows and a pyramidal bell tower. The church was designed in 1892 by Portage la Prairie architect James H. McDonald who brought a sophisticated knowledge of architectural styles, materials and details to this project.
|Griswold United Church
Between 1890 and 1910, more than 200 Methodist and Presbyterian churches were built in Manitoba. While most were small, wood-frame buildings, some larger church communities were able to build more elaborate churches of brick or stone. Occasionally, a small congregation might undertake such an ambitious project.
In 1896, local stonemason Henry Winter was commissioned to build the Presbyterian church. His design, with its rugged stonework, pointed Gothic-style windows, and restrained woodwork, recalls the small parish churches of Scotland and England. In Manitoba, Griswold United is one of the fullest expressions of that tradition.
|Knox United Church
400 Edmonton Street,
Knox United, originally a Presbyterian church, is the largest United church in Manitoba. Constructed between 1914 and 1918, it was also the pinnacle of Protestant church architecture in the province. The building is the design of J.H.G. Russell (1862–1946), a prominent Winnipeg architect also responsible for two other important United Churches, Augustine (1903–04) and Westminster (1911–12). Knox was created with reference to the Late Gothic Revival style. With its powerful verticality, smooth surfaces and subdued ornament, it is a magnificent exponent of that style. Finished at the height of World War One, the church was one of the last great building projects undertaken in Manitoba during the Edwardian era.
|Frelsis (Liberty) Lutheran Church at Grund
R.M. of Argyle
This is the oldest standing Icelandic Lutheran Church in Canada. It was built in 1889 by volunteers under the direction of carpenters Byring Hallgrimsson and Arni Sveinson. Grund Lutheran is representative of late nineteenth-century church architecture in rural Manitoba, a wood frame structure built on a simple rectangular plan. The prevailing taste for the Gothic Revival style is expressed here in pointed windows, and delicate window tracery on the tower.
Many of the early congregation members had first settled at New Iceland (Gimli) in the late 1870s, before homesteading in the Municipality of Argyle in the 1880s. They were still living in log houses when they built this church which became the focal point of the community. In 1964, Frelsis Congregation joined Baldur Immanuel Lutheran Church.
|Central Normal School
442 William Avenue,
The former Central Normal School served as the headquarters for teacher training for more than forty years. It was the key institution for elevating the educational level of children and formulating educational philosophy and curriculum.
The School was constructed in 1905–06 from plans by Samuel Hooper (1861–1911). From 1904 to 1911, Samuel Hooper was Manitoba's Provincial Architect. He originally trained as a stonemason and became one of Winnipeg's foremost architects.
The Neo-Classical structure built of Tyndall limestone was one of four Normal Schools built in Manitoba. The others were St. Boniface (1903), Manitou (1904, demolished), and Brandon (1912–13).
This imposing building was rehabilitated for residential use in 1992.
265 Provencher Boulevard,
Thomas Alfred Bernier (1844–1908) and his son Joseph (1874–1951) played active roles in the Franco-Manitoban community during the crucial 1870–1920 period in its development. Thomas Bernier, who practised law as a Crown Attorney in St. Jean, Quebec, was persuaded by his old classmate, Archbishop A.A. Taché, to move to Manitoba in 1880, with ambitions to become a farmer at Ste. Agathe. Instead, he embarked on a long and distinguished career in administration and politics, serving as Registrar of the University of Manitoba, St. Boniface reeve, French Clerk of the Manitoba Legislative Assembly and Senator (1892–1908). Thomas' son, Joseph Bernier, was a well-known St. Boniface lawyer, politician and businessman.
The Bernier house was designed by Aimée de Keroak, Thomas Bernier's cousin (and better known in St. Boniface as a bookseller), and was constructed in 1882. An elegant design, this eighteen-room home was one of the city's premier social, intellectual and political centres.
|Women's Tribute Memorial Lodge
200 Woodlawn Street, Winnipeg
The Women's Tribute Memorial Lodge is a significant building, developed as a veteran's memorial with funds raised by the women of Manitoba. The Lodge was conceived as a symbol of gratitude and remembrance for those who served in the First World War. Constructed in 1931, the building was not just a monument, but a living memorial containing an auditorium, games room and a special space called the Room of Silence. These facilities were used by the veterans from the Great War to help them continue with their lives, and as a commemorative space to remember all those that had served their province and country. Designed by prominent Manitoba architects George W. Northwood and Cyril W. U. Chivers, both of whom had served in the First World War, the Women's Tribute Memorial Lodge also is a rare Manitoba example of the Art Deco style of architecture. With its basic cubic form, crisp edges and effective geometric decoration, it is an exemplary example of the style.
|Captain William Kennedy House
417 River Road,
R.M. of St. Andrews
Captain William Kennedy was an Artic explorer and advocate for Canadian westward expansion. The house was built in 1866 for Kennedy, using stones quarried from the Red River banks at nearby St. Andrews Rapids. It was expanded in the 1920's. The Gothic Revival style of the Kennedy House is architecturally distinctive, compared to the other old stone houses built in the Red River Settlement, which tended to reflect more Georgian influences. By contemporary Canadian or British standards Kennedy House was simple and unadorned. By Red River Settlement standards, however, it was very fashionable. Since the destruction of several early stone houses along the Red River, Kennedy House now stands as one of only seven remaining and one of only three in excellent condition.
|Emerson Town Hall and Court House
104 Church Street,
This splendid example of a small Neo-Classical style municipal building was designed by the John D. Atchison Company of Winnipeg. Erected during 1917-18 by general contractors Grey and Davidson, it remains one of the outstanding buildings in Emerson. This was the last court house built during the great settlement boom of 1880 to 1920.
The many uses of this structure-town offices, a court room, registry office, a gaol, and theatre-has ensured an economical building for a small and important regional centre. The building was officially opened on July 29, 1918. The Emerson Journal considered the new edifice, with its Ionic columns, to be a "crackerjack and a credit to the town and community."
|Brandon Court House
525 Victoria Avenue E.,
Brandon's importance as a major centre in southwestern Manitoba was confirmed when it was selected in 1883 as the headquarters for the newly created Western Judicial District of Manitoba. The Brandon Court House and Gaol was designed by C. Osborn Wickenden, architect of the Winnipeg (1883) and Neepawa (1884) court buildings. The skill of the architect and craftsmen is evident in the fine architectural detailing and intricate brickwork. Officially opened in March 1884, this Italianate-inspired structure is the oldest remaining court house on the Prairies. Completion of this structure ushered in an early stage of substantial government building construction in Manitoba.
When the new Brandon Court House opened on Princess Avenue in 1910, this structure was remodelled for gaol facilities. It served as a detention centre in 1979. The gaol was demolished in 1985. The renovated court house is now a personal care home.
|Pantages Playhouse Theatre
180 Market Avenue, Winnipeg
The magnificent Pantages Playhouse Theatre is among the best of the vaudeville houses built in Canada between 1913 and 1920 and the first large concrete theatre in North America. Designed by B. Marcus Priteca of Seattle, Washington, for a flamboyant entrepreneur, Alexander Pantages, the structure reflects the period prestige of its chain, once the largest independently owned circuit of motion picture and vaudeville houses in the United States, and of Winnipeg, an enterprising western metropolis burgeoning with wealth. Outside and within, the theatre is a skilful display of the signature 'Greek Pantages' style of Classical Revival architecture. Especially noteworthy is the lush interior with its rich finishes and details and good sightlines, acoustics and circulation patterns. Little of the main facade, lobby and auditorium has been altered and, with the contemporary expansion of various functional spaces, the theatre continues to be a vital live performance venue situated within a cluster of major entertainment facilities in the Exchange District National Historic Site of Canada.
1039 Louise Avenue,
This house was built for George A. Paterson in 1893 by Brandon's William Bell and Sons. 1039 Louise Avenue is a splendid example of the Eastlake style of architecture, which is characterized by an abundance of ornamentation produced by the chisel, gouge and lathe. Elaborately turned posts, curved brackets and spindle work are found in the handsome verandah and tower balcony. The gables are adorned with bargeboard and decorated with a semicircle of knobs and designs cut into wood. Renovations in 1904 doubled the size of the house. A magnificent stained glass window "Listening," designed by Winnipeg artist John Allward, was added to the second floor landing; circa 1904.
|St. Elijah Romanian Orthodox Church
SW 24-23-24W, Lennard District, R.M. of Shellmouth
This is the oldest standing Romanian Church in Manitoba. Built in 1908 by Romanian pioneers from Bukovyna, then a province of the Austrian Empire, St. Elijah replaced a sod and log structure dating from 1903. Alexie Slusarchuk, a farmer, designed the church which was built on farmland donated by Elie Burla. The church was used for worship until 1952. Restored in 1979, the church was dedicated to community pioneers on the 80th anniversary of the founding of the parish.
The form of St. Elijah-a simple rectangular shape distinguished by rounded ends-is derived from traditional church designs common in Bukovyna and Romania. Interior features include sculptured rafters, processional crosses, and icons reflecting the vernacular decorative style of Bukovyna.
|St. Paul's United Church
590 Johnson Street, Boissevain
By the turn of the twentieth century, many of Manitoba's small urban centres had grown into solid, prosperous communities. Their buildings reflected this evolution. Substantial Presbyterian and Methodist churches of brick and stone eventually came to replace earlier wood-frame structures. St. Paul's United, originally Methodist, is a fine example of these large buildings. Built in 1893, it is one of the foremost representatives of fieldstone construction.
The church exemplifies the Gothic Revival style, one of the most commonly used architectural expressions of the age. Edward Lowry, a Winnipeg architect, prepared the design for the building. The stone, lime, and sand used to build the walls were drawn from local sources. The construction was undertaken by volunteers from the congregation.
|Dauphin Town Hall
104 First Avenue N.W., Dauphin
This imposing brick building was erected in 1904-05 to replace an earlier wooden structure destroyed by fire New Year's morning of 1904. Designed by Stuart Geekie, a Dauphin architect and local politician, this Romanesque Revival-style building accommodated a variety of services-town hall offices, courthouse and jail, fire hall and an auditorium. In 1956 the building became the headquarters for the Dauphin RCMP and the Fire Department. This building has been the home of the Dauphin Allied Arts Centre Inc., since 1973. On June 9, 1985 the Centre was officially renamed the Dr. Vernon Watson Arts Centre in memory of the guiding spirit behind the formation of the Dauphin Allied Arts Council.
|A.E. McKenzie Company Building
Francis Bethel McKenzie died in Brandon in December 1896 and bequeathed his business to his son, Albert, who renamed it A.E. McKenzie & Company in 1897. Dr. Albert E. McKenzie (1870-1964), who operated the company until his death, left a legacy as an eminent international businessman and philanthropist. Under his guidance, McKenzie Seeds became the largest seed production and distribution business in Western Canada. The Brandon Sun commented that "... 'McKenzie Seeds' are household words in every agricultural home in all Western Canada."
This six storey reinforced concrete and brick office and warehouse was designed in 1910 by Thomas Sinclair, a prominent Brandon architect, and constructed for $100,000 by the Brandon Construction Company under the supervision of Thomas Harrington. The utilitarian building has decorative highlights such as voluted shield capitals, which support the second-storey cornice. An eighty-foot concrete seed bin added in 1918 was designed and constructed by the Fegles and Bellows Company.
Keenly interested in higher education, McKenzie established the A.E. McKenzie Endowment Fund in 1939 to financially assist Brandon College. In 1941, he was given the honourary degree of Doctor of Laws by the University of Manitoba. To ensure financial support to the College, the balance of McKenzie's shares in the corporation were turned over to the provincial government. A.E. McKenzie Co. remained a Crown corporation until December 1994, when it was returned to the private sector.
|Stonewall Post Office Building
361 Main Street,
This building is Manitoba's foremost example of Prairie Style architecture and only known surviving example of Prairie Style institutional architecture in Manitoba. It was designed by Francis Conroy Sullivan (1882-1929), one of Canada's pioneer practitioners of this style. His inspiration was Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959) the renowned Chicago architect and originator of the Prairie Style which achieved widespread acceptance from 1900-1914.
The Prairie Style was predominantly employed in domestic architecture, and in small banks, libraries, schools and churches. Prairie Style was characterized by a low box-design which incorporated strong horizontal lines within a balanced and symmetrical façade. It often featured patterned ornamentation in coloured terra cotta, leaded stained-glass windows and skylights decorated with geometric patterns.
The Dominion Department of Public Works built the post office during 1914-15 using local Stonewall formation limestone. It was used as a post office until 1978.
|Manitoba Glass Company Site
Cemetery Road West,
This is the site of the first glass container factory in Western Canada. It was built in 1906 by Joseph Keilbach and his partners. Glassblowers from Poland and the United States, aided by local labour, used silica sands to produce bottles for breweries and soft drink companies in Winnipeg, serving the Prairie market. Semi-automatic machines were soon installed to increase production. After it was taken over and enlarged by Winnipeg businessmen between 1909 and 1911, the new company expanded its production to include jars, and medicine and ink bottles. At its peak it employed 350 workers.
The factory could not compete with Eastern Canadian manufacturers who held the exclusive licence for fully automatic machines and operated with much larger capital. As a result, it was purchased in 1913 by a Montreal company which then relocated its Western operations to Redcliff, Alberta, in response to an offer of free natural gas and land. The Beausejour works were closed in 1913-14.
Riding Mountain National Park,
This building, and the nearby Park Theatre, are striking examples of a rustic architectural style that shaped the character of Wasagaming during its formative years. Rustic buildings, common to Canada's national parks in the 1930s, were constructed with peeled logs and fieldstone, to create picturesque additions to resort communities. An abundance of timber and skilled local craftsmen produced Wasagaming's charming rustic log buildings.
The Wigwam Restaurant was constructed in 1928–29 by its owners, O.J. Gusdal and Ernst Gusdal, employing Swedish craftsmen. The large rectangular wood-frame structure is sheathed in horizontal split-log siding. The interior walls and intricate hipped ceiling are covered in golden-hued, horizontal log siding.
Riding Mountain National Park,
This building, and the nearby Wigwam Restaurant, are striking examples of a rustic architectural style that shaped the character of Wasagaming during its formative years. Rustic buildings, common to Canada's national parks in the 1930s, were constructed with peeled logs and fieldstone, to create picturesque additions to resort communities. An abundance of timber and skilled local craftsmen produced Wasagaming's charming rustic log buildings.
The Park Theatre was built in 1936–37 of saddle-notched logs to designs prepared by the National Parks' Architectural Division. It was the only log cinema built in a national park, if not in all of Canada. The theatre auditorium features exposed log beams and rafters with decorative wrought ironwork.
|Brant Consolidated School
Government Road Allowance,
As Manitoba's communities expanded during the late nineteenth century, the need for larger school facilities resulted in the construction of scores of impressive new schools. For many communities this was their largest building; two storeys high, usually of brick, and often with fine architectural details.
By the 1950s, however, as school district consolidation took hold, the rural educational fabric changed dramatically. The ubiquitous one-room schools were amongst the first to be phased out. But many of the large centralized schools also followed, replaced by more modern structures. By the 1960s only a handful of the big schools remained.
That turn of events makes Brant School all the more special, a rare survivor, and the only example of the few survivors still used as a school. Built in 1914, the building is typical of its type. It is a solid block, well lit by banks of windows. The design is formal, with the main entrance accented with a carved limestone canopy. Inside, the school still boasts the original staircase and pressed metal ceiling panels.
|Galloway Bros. Department Store
37 Morris Avenue,
The former Galloway Bros. Department Store was constructed in 1902 to designs prepared by George W. Gouinlock (1861-1932), a prominent Canadian architect. It remains one of the earliest department store buildings outside a major urban centre in Manitoba.
Brothers Roper and William Galloway had established their retail venture in Gladstone in 1881. The department store was advertised as "the Live Business House of the West," boasting 27 employees, "a dozen separate and distinct businesses under one roof and management." Large showrooms, spacious stairways, and an elevator made for comfortable shopping. Acetylene gas lamps lit the store. The ground floor featured sash and oriel windows surrounded by decorative brickwork. The unique Queen Anne inspired roofline, with its pyramidal tower, added flair to the brick commercial structure.
The store was sold in 1913. It operated as Collins and Diamond Department Store from 1918 to 1934, when the business failed. Since this time, it has been the location of several commercial enterprises.
|H.P. Tergesen General Store
82 First Avenue,
This General Store was constructed in 1898 by Hans Pjetur Tergesen and opened for business on January 1, 1899. It has been owned and operated by three generations of his descendants. It is the oldest operating general store in Manitoba and an excellent example of a rural community store. The vernacular-style building is a rectangular wooden structure with a flat roof. A wooden parapet with a bracketed cornice gives the building a more imposing appearance. The interior possesses most of its original furnishings.
The 1899 general store was a two-storey structure clad in pressed tin to resemble brick. In 1912-13, a two-storey addition provided more space for Tergesen's dry goods and clothing sales, and room for a drug store, dentist's office, ice-cream parlour, and a barber shop. A second floor that had first served as the Tergesen family living quarters was removed in the 1920s. The building provided space for a classroom, a community hall, the Gimli Women's Institute, and the University of Manitoba's library extension service.
General stores faced fierce competition-first from mail-order suppliers and then also from franchise chains after 1930. The store has survived because of its ability to adapt to a changing economy.
|Brandon Normal School
1129 Queens Avenue,
This building was constructed in 1912-13. Designed by Victor Horwood, then Provincial Architect, the School was devoted to teacher training in Manitoba. The classically-styled building was one of four Normal Schools built in Manitoba: St. Boniface (1903); Manitou (1904, demolished); and Winnipeg (1905-06).
Benjamin J. Hales was the first principal of the School. He retired in 1938, with an established reputation as an educator, author and naturalist. He founded the B.J. Hales Museum of Natural History which became permanently established at Brandon University in 1965.
The school was a centre for rural teaching instruction until 1943 when the building was occupied by the Department of National Defence during World War II. The building was turned over to the Manitoba Department of Agriculture in 1946 for its southwestern operations. It became the Agricultural Extension Centre in 1959.
|Sir Hugh John Macdonald House
61 Carlton Street,
This splendid red brick house was built in 1895 for Sir Hugh John Macdonald (1850-1929), son of Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. One of the few remaining examples of the work of architect Charles H. Wheeler, it is representative of domestic architecture executed in the Queen Anne style. Named "Dalnavert" after the birthplace of Hugh John's maternal grandmother in Scotland, it is a reminder of Winnipeg's first affluent neighbourhoods. Macdonald and his wife, Lady Agnes, made Dalnavert a centre of social life and hospitality in early Winnipeg.
Hugh John Macdonald was knighted in 1913. Briefly Premier of Manitoba during 1900, his long and colourful career included service as soldier, Member of Parliament, Member of the Legislative Assembly, and police magistrate for the City of Winnipeg.
Threatened with demolition in 1970, Dalnavert was saved by the Manitoba Historical Society and by 1974 was restored to its former elegance.
|Virden Municipal Building and Auditorium
228 Wellington Street,
Acclaimed by Virden's The Empire-Advance as one of the finest and best equipped opera houses in Western Canada, the Auditorium has a handsome interior and superb acoustics. It was constructed in 1911-12 as an addition to the existing fire hall by local contractor William Thomas Manser from designs by noted Brandon architect William A. Elliott.
The "Aud" opened on February 29, 1912. As well as serving as the home of the Virden Dramatic and Operatic Society and the Virden Orchestra, it soon became the social and entertainment centre for the performing arts in western Manitoba. The unusual combination of municipal offices, courtroom and theatre has made this building a provincial landmark. After the demolition of the fire hall, the Auditorium was restored through community efforts during 1982-83. The Municipal Building was subsequently renovated by the Town of Virden.
|Merchants Bank Building
1043 Rosser Avenue,
The Merchants Bank opened its first Brandon office in 1882, shortly after the townsite was chosen. This building, designed by the Montreal architectural firm of Taylor, Hogel and Davis, was constructed in 1907. A fine example of the Beaux-Arts Classical style of architecture, the Ionic columns and decorative wrought ironwork enhance its stately appearance.
The Merchants Bank was absorbed by the Bank of Montreal in 1922. The building was donated to the City of Brandon and served as the first public library from 1944-83. The city gave the structure to the Brandon Chamber of Commerce and, following major renovations, it officially reopened in 1986. The renewal of this graceful structure maintains the distinctive character of the Brandon business district and ensures that the important building boom of the first decade of the twentieth century will be remembered.
|Margaret Laurence House
312 First Avenue,
Margaret Laurence, an internationally renowned author, was born and raised in Neepawa. After graduating in 1947 from Winnipeg's United College, she worked as a reporter with the Winnipeg Citizen. Her years in Africa during the 1950s inspired her first novel, This Side Jordan (1961), which met with critical acclaim.
Neepawa provided the setting for five later novels set in the fictional prairie town of Manawaka. Vivid prairie imagery and assertion of human dignity suffuse these works. Laurence received two Governor-General's awards for fiction and became a Companion of the Order of Canada in 1971.
Laurence lived here in her grandfather's house from 1935 to 1944. Built ca. 1894, the house, and her grandfather John Simpson, figured prominently in the Manawaka novels. The house was purchased in 1986 by the Margaret Laurence Home Committee and is dedicated to the literary career of "The First Lady of Manawaka."
|St. Michael's Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church
NW 28-1-6E, near Gardenton, R.M. of Stuartburn
St. Michael's Orthodox Church, consecrated October 14, 1899, was the first permanent Ukrainian Orthodox church erected in Canada. Until the parish joined the Greek Orthodox Church of Canada in 1922, it was served by a Russian Orthodox Mission. The church was built by immigrants from northern Bukovyna, now the western Ukraine, who settled in the Gardenton area after 1896. Measuring 48' x 22' x 33', the structure exemplified Bukovynian pioneer craftsmanship in architecture, interior decoration and religious furnishing. St. Michael's served as a focal point of spiritual and cultural life in the first Ukrainian settlement in Manitoba and remains a symbol of the continuity of the Ukrainian identity in Canada.
|Garry Telephone Exchange Building
474 Hargrave Street,
Until 1906, many small, competing telephone companies provided unreliable service to Manitobans. Recognizing the growing importance of communications, the Conservative government of Sir Rodmond Roblin created Manitoba Government Telephones as the first provincially owned telephone system in Canada. Creation of this public utility marked a significant step in the emergence of a mixed public and private economy in Manitoba.
This building, designed by Provincial Architect Samuel Hooper, was begun in 1907 and was the first exchange erected by the new company. It served as headquarters and as a visual symbol of the Manitoba Telephone System until 1932, when head office demands outgrew the building. Following the construction of new headquarters on Portage Avenue East, the "Garry" continued to function as one of the main downtown exchanges.
Declared surplus in 1952, the "Garry" was converted into a garment factory two years later. During 1986-87, this building was converted to cooperative housing.
|Villa Louise, Dr. Alexander Fleming House
707 Louise Avenue,
Villa Louise is an exceptional example of the Italianate Villa style. Part of the Picturesque Movement in nineteenth century North American design, the Italianate Villa style featured low-pitched roofs, wide eaves with decorative brackets, and wide verandahs. Villa Louise, with its striking appearance, generous size and extensive grounds, was a landmark in early Brandon. Once common in Manitoba, examples of this style are now extremely rare.
The residence is also the earliest known Brandon commission of Walter H. Shillinglaw (1864-1957), who enjoyed a distinguished career as an architect, military officer, and City Engineer in Brandon. The house was built in 1888 for pioneer physician Alexander Fleming (1841-97). It was subsequently owned by Isaac Robinson, founder of the Empire Brewing Company of Brandon.
|Stott Mound and Camp Site
SW 35-10-20W, Brandon area, R.M. of Whitehead
The rich animal and plant resources of this portion of the Assiniboine River valley sustained Aboriginal peoples long before Europeans settled the area. For at least 1,200 years, hunters periodically stampeded bison down the valley slope onto the flood plain where the animals were trapped and killed with spears and arrows. Parts of the butchered carcasses were carried to camps on the slopes where meat was stripped from the bones and made into jerky and pemmican. The bones were fashioned into tools and ornaments, or smashed and boiled in clay pots to extract the marrow, or "bone butter." The hides were made into shelters, clothing and containers. Freshwater clams, fish, beaver, muskrat, and wild plants supplemented the diet of bison meat. Stone tools were fashioned from local fine-grained stone and from Knife River Flint quarried in western North Dakota.
|Courier Publishing Company Building
218 Broadway Street South,
This structure houses Manitoba's oldest continuously operating printshop. It is an outstanding example of an early small-town newspaper office and contains one of the province's finest collections of working turn-of-the-century printing equipment.
The printshop was constructed in 1881 by Thomas Greenway, founder of Crystal City and Premier of Manitoba from 1888 to 1900. Modest false-fronted commercial structures such as this were typically among the first to be constructed in newly established prairie townsites. This example has survived largely intact and at its original main-street location.
The first issue of the weekly Rock Lake Herald was published here on September 1, 1881, only three years after the arrival of the area's first settlers. It was succeeded by the long-running Crystal City Courier. Such local newspapers were often the main source of news and information for the community, and played a significant role in the early social, cultural, and political development of rural Manitoba.
In 1991, the printshop was purchased by a community group and developed as a working museum.
(Former E.H.G.G. Hay House),
546 River Road,
R.M. of St. Andrews
Thomas Firth commenced construction on his house in 1861. Firth had been a Hudson Bay Company labourer. He retired to the Parish of St. Andrews where a community of former Hudson Bay Company employees formed a wealthy enclave within the Red River Settlement. In 1911 the house was purchased by businessman E.H.G.G. Hay. Hay was a member of Louis Riel's provisional government. He also served in the first Legislative Assembly in Manitoba.
"The Heights" is one of only a few remaining stone houses from the Red River Settlement era. Five of these are concentrated along River Road, south of Lower Fort Garry. This house is of the Georgian style of architecture. That style, which originated in eighteenth century Britain, produced buildings of symmetrical composition enriched with classical detail. In Manitoba, such houses represented the pinnacle of Red River domestic architecture.
|Carberry Agricultural Society Display Building
Agricultural fairs were common events in Manitoba communities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They allowed people to view agricultural products and machinery and were an important venue for social interaction. Major fairs were held in places like Brandon, Portage la Prairie and Winnipeg, while modest operations were annually established in smaller places. In some cases communities invested in their fairs by constructing permanent display buildings. These could be rather fanciful creations, befitting their specialized function. One popular form was the octagon, an eight-sided structure that was both eye-catching externally and spacious internally.
The Carberry Agricultural Society Display Building, constructed in 1893, is an excellent example of this building type. The octagonal building has an interior that retains all its original construction elements, including ornate hand carved display shelves. It has been in continuous use by the Carberry Agricultural Society.
|St. Peter's Dynevor Anglican Church Rectory
1147 Breezy Point Road,
R.M. of St. Andrews
The rectory for St. Peter's Anglican Church was built from 1862-65. It was constructed for Reverend Abraham Cowley (1816-1887), the English missionary responsible for the Aboriginal congregation of the Parish of St. Peter's. Between 1896 and 1957 the rectory functioned as a Federal tuberculosis hospital for Aboriginals. The hospital was the only such facility devoted to Aboriginal health care established in Manitoba. In 1962 the property, including the old rectory, was reoccupied by the Anglican Church and became home for St. John's Cathedral Boys' School.
The rectory is one of only a few remaining stone houses from the Red River Settlement era. Five others are concentrated along River Road, south of Lower Fort Garry. These structures are a product of the Georgian architectural tradition of eighteenth century Britain, which produced buildings of symmetrical composition enriched with classical detail. In Manitoba, such houses represented the pinnacle of Red River domestic architecture.
SW 24-23-24W, Lennard District,
R.M. of Shellmouth
This former farmhouse is the last known example of a traditional Romanian-style residence in Manitoba. It was constructed in 1906 by John and Mary Paulencu with the assistance of noted local carpenter Alexie Slusarchuyk.
The design originates from the Carpathian Mountain region of Eastern Europe, and therefore possesses similarities to Ukrainian houses, including a rectangular three-room plan with a centrally positioned door, and hip roof. The Romanian vernacular form, however, tended to be somewhat larger and more ornate. The Paulencu house was constructed of round logs with overlapping saddle-notch corner connections. At the upper portions of the exterior walls, the logs progressively extend out to form large brackets which help to support the roof's wide overhanging eaves. The Paulencu house has survived largely intact and is the last of a community of similar farm residences constructed on adjoining homesteads by family members and friends.
|Flee Island Dakota Entrenchment
NE 13-13-6W, R.M. of Portage la Prairie
The eastern Dakota (Sioux) of Minnesota traditionally built "cunkaské" (pronounced choonkashkay)- wooden palisades, piles of stones and earthen entrenchments - around their camps and villages for protection against elements, wild animals, and potential enemies. One group was even referred to as the "Cunkaskétonwan," Nation of the Forts. In the summer of 1862, many Dakota openly rebelled against the intolerable treatment they had received from American authorities. As a result, several hundred Dakota refugees moved north to the relative safety of the Red River Settlement. In the spring of 1864, following an attack by Chippewa (Anishinabe) bounty hunters from Minnesota, the Dakota constructed fortified camps in the Portage la Prairie district. Each camp was enclosed by a circular trench and embankment behind which armed defenders could position themselves. Inside this circle was a ring of pits where the women and children could take refuge in the event of an attack. The Flee Island Entrenchment is nearly circular with a diameter of 73 metres. It is not quite continuous, however, as the eastern portion has been incorporated into the adjacent field. Depth of the intact trench varies from 0.3 to 1.0 metres, and there was a semi-continuous bank of earth on the outside. A number of deep, circular pits are also located on the inside, close to the trench.
|Beautiful Plains County Court Building
282 Hamilton Street, Neepawa
During the Manitoba land boom of the late 1870s and early 1880s settlers from Ontario were attracted to the Beautiful Plains area. The Town of Neepawa was incorporated in 1883 and became the county seat the following year. The County Court Building was erected in 1884 to house the court and gaol as well as town and municipal offices.
The county comprised four municipalities-Glendale, Lansdowne, Osprey and Rosedale. The local municipalities continued to use the building after the county system ceased to exist in 1890.
This building was designed by C. Osborn Wickenden, who was also the architect of the court houses in Brandon and Winnipeg. The Neepawa and Brandon buildings are the oldest surviving court houses on the Prairies.
|Historic Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Resurrection
1106 First Street SW,
The Ukrainian Catholics of Dauphin organized their first parish in 1916. They held their first service in an old Anglican church that they had purchased and moved into town. By 1936 it could not meet the needs of a growing parish. This church was built between 1936 and 1939 by volunteers from the parish. It was designed by the Very Reverend Philip Ruh, O.M.I. (1883-1962), whose architectural talents assisted many Ukrainian Catholic parishes throughout Western Canada. With their ambitious size and decorative appeal, these churches designed by Reverend Ruh came to be known as "prairie cathedrals." The Dauphin church is one of his best.
In 1957, the noted iconographer Theodore Baran (1910-1995) undertook the religious painting of the church interior. His frescoes, icons and murals create one of the most visually spectacular interiors in the Province.
In 1990, the parish undertook construction of a new church, but respected their architectural heritage by preserving this landmark. The Historic Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Resurrection continues to serve the community as a site of a variety of cultural activities.
|Boundary Commission Trail - Turtlehead Creek Crossing
5 km southeast of Deloraine
In 1818 the British and American governments established the Canadian-American boundary at the 49th parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains, extending it to the Pacific in 1846. The British North American Boundary Commission surveyed the boundary in 1872. The surveyors opened a trail from Fort Dufferin (Emerson) to Cartwright; from there they followed an existing trail long used by Aboriginal peoples and fur traders. The old and new trails became known as the Boundary Commission Trail.
Here, where the trail crosses Turtlehead Creek, is one of the longest intact portions of the Boundary Commission Trail in Manitoba. The North West Mounted Police camped here in 1874 on their historic trek west. During the early 1880s, the crossing area was the site of a Dominion Land Titles Office, serving hundreds of homesteaders in Manitoba and the North West Territories. The land office site was submerged in 1962 by the Turtlehead Reservoir.
This 32-hectare site remains a rare example of undisturbed natural oak savannah and mixed-grass prairie vegetation. In 1993, the Turtle Mountain Conservation District purchased the land to ensure its preservation.
|Independent Order of Odd Fellows Building
Neepawa Lodge No. 16
376 Mountain Avenue,
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F.) Building is a representative example of a prosperous fraternal organization in a town. Established in 1889, this meeting hall was constructed in 1903 to the plans of Winnipeg architect Hugh S. Griffith. It is the oldest I.O.O.F. building in Manitoba. The façade is enhanced by rows of arched windows, a corbelled brick cornice, and fanciful ornamentation. The triangular roof pediment frames I.O.O.F.
As settlers arrived in Manitoba, they established organizations designed to assist members and their families in times of personal and material need. These fellowship groups were generally associated with religious, cultural and social values.
Meeting places ranged from leased space to privately owned buildings. Private lodges were generally of modest wood-frame construction, while larger groups erected brick vernacular-style buildings which they let for commercial purposes and social functions.
Triple links above the datestone symbolize the Order's principles-Friendship, Love and Truth.
|St. Anne's Anglican Church
River Lot 58,
Poplar Point Parish
St. Anne's, completed in 1864, is one of the oldest log churches in continuous use in Western Canada. Built through the efforts of Archdeacon William Cockran, founder of the Church of England Missions in the Assiniboine Valley, its first incumbent was Reverend John Chapman. Before St. Anne's was built, settlers who had migrated from the parishes of St. Andrew's, St. Paul's, and St. James' on the Red and lower Assiniboine Rivers, worshipped in Portage la Prairie or in farm houses in this district.
The church is one of a handful of remaining buildings constructed of logs according to the technique known as Red River frame. That procedure was once the most common building technology in Manitoba. It involves the creation of a framework of vertical logs and then the placement of short horizontal logs into the spaces.
2373 Main Street,
This building was erected by the Presbyterian parishioners of Kildonan under the supervision of their minister, James Nisbet. Known as Kildonan School, this simple stone structure was opened on July 12, 1865. It featured a main room accommodating up to 80 students and a smaller back room for special classes in advanced subjects. In 1871 the first Manitoba College classes met here while awaiting the completion of the separate college building. In later years it became the home of the Kildonan Literary Society and the centre for many community and social functions.
Closed and abandoned in 1905, the building was renovated in 1919 and Nisbet Hall, as it came to be known, served as a parish meeting place until vacated in 1969. The building was moved to its present site in 1987 and restored as a part of Kildonan Presbyterian Church.
|Ralph Connor House
54 West Gate, Winnipeg
The Ralph Connor House was built in 1914 for the Reverend Charles Gordon, who, under the pen name "Ralph Connor", prospered by writing many best-selling novels dealing with the opening and settlement of Western Canada. He was an activist in social and labour causes, and influential in the formation of the United Church of Canada in 1925.
With its picturesque shape, steep roof, elaborate chimneys and bay windows with stone mullions, the house is an exceptional example of the Jacobethan Revival style, an architectural style derived from grand seventeenth century British manor houses. The house was designed by well-known Winnipeg architect George Northwood. Since 1945, the house and grounds have been carefully maintained by the University Women's Club of Winnipeg to retain their original character.
|Arden Camp Site
NE 13-15-14W, Arden, R.M. of Lansdowne
|Click on the image to see an early drawing of the mound.
||The Arden Camp Site, located in the town of Arden, contains the remnants of the most northerly Aboriginal burial mound in Manitoba. The mound had a large centre section (over one metre in height and 20 metres in diameter) with a "tail" that extended to the southeast for more than 135 metres. The mound is considered to be one of three effigy mounds (a mound built in the form of an animal) recorded in the province. The form has been interpreted as a beaver.
The mound was constructed on a prominent gravel ridge, a former shoreline of glacial Lake Agassiz. The camp site was located west of the mound and extended down the beach ridge to the Whitemud River. There are no known dates for the construction of the mound, or occupation of the camp site, although a metal knife blade, reportedly recovered approximately 80 centimetres below the surface of the mound, suggests that it may date after the arrival of Europeans.
Today, there is virtually nothing left of the mound.
|Ukrainian Labor Temple
591 Pritchard Avenue,
Constructed in 1918-19, this is the first and largest Ukrainian Labor Temple in Canada, built primarily by volunteer labour and financed by donations. Built to a Neo-Classical design prepared by Robert E. Davies of Winnipeg, the Temple contained an auditorium and balcony to seat 1,000 people, as well as classrooms, a library and a printshop. A 1926 addition provided space for a new printing plant and offices for the Ukrainian Labor-Farmer Temple Association. It remains the national headquarters for the Workers Benevolent Association established at the Temple in 1922.
The Temple was a focus for Ukrainian culture and worker and farmer political activism. As a rallying centre for the trade union movement, it was raided by the police during the 1919 Winnipeg General Strike. The Temple remains the only surviving labour hall associated with the turbulent events of the Strike. The Ukrainian Labor News and other Ukrainian language publications were prepared and distributed from here.
The unity of working people is symbolized over the entrance by two clasping hands reaching across the globe, underscored with Workers of the World Unite.
|Brandon College and Clark Hall Buildings
270 - 18th Street,
Higher education in western Manitoba traces its beginnings to Rapid City where in 1880 the Baptist community established Prairie College. In 1884 Prairie College was incorporated into the new McKee Academy, which in 1890 was relocated to Brandon. Brandon College was formally established by the Baptist Union of Canada in 1899 and became an affiliate of Ontario's McMaster University in 1910. Financial difficulties forced the Church to withdraw its support in 1938, after which Brandon was incorporated as a non-denominational college of the University of Manitoba. Brandon University was established as an independent institution in July, 1967.
The original Brandon College building was completed in 1901. It was designed by Winnipeg architect Hugh McCowan (1841-1908). Although resembling other educational structures being constructed in Winnipeg during this period, Brandon College was a somewhat larger, more dignified and distinctive structure. Built of locally produced brick and Manitoba limestone, this imposing edifice displays a handsome Romanesque tower with graceful arches and small turrets at each corner.
|St. John's Telephone Exchange Building
405 Burrows Avenue,
In January 15, 1908 the Province of Manitoba purchased the interests and facilities of the Bell Telephone Company of Canada and several other smaller private telephone companies, and created the Manitoba Government Telephone System (M.G.T.). The establishment of a public telephone system came as a result of increasing competition and erratic service. In Winnipeg, the result was that the single, over-taxed, Bell Exchange was soon replaced by satellite exchanges in various areas of the City.
The St. John's Exchange building, together with Garry, Sherbrook, and West are the only surviving pioneer M.G.T. exchange structures. St. John was designed by Provincial Architect Samuel Hooper and constructed in 1910-11. Although many classical architectural elements were used in its design, Hooper created a somewhat subdued utilitarian appearance for the building in order for it to better fit into the neighbourhood in which it was located. In 1922 and again in 1947, the building was enlarged slightly and its interior altered to facilitate the installation of automatic user dialling equipment. The facility was officially closed in 1990. In 1993, the Winnipeg Housing Rehabilitation Corporation successfully negotiated for the purchase of the building.
|Tamarisk United Church
R.M. of Grandview
The United Church of Canada was formed in 1925 from the union of most Congregationalist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches. Of the hundreds of churches inherited by the new Church, most were modest structures. Pointed windows and occasionally a small bell tower identified their spiritual purpose. Originally a Methodist church when it was built in 1907, Tamarisk United is one of the best examples in Manitoba of those many humble buildings. Tamarisk's straightforward external character expresses the unpretentious theological nature of Methodism. Unpainted woodwork in the interior creates a warm, welcoming glow.
|Dauphin Canadian Northern Railway Station
103 - 1st Avenue NW,
Railway service became essential as Manitoba was opened to settlement and agricultural commerce during the 1880s and 1890s. In one of the province's greatest waves of construction, first the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) and then other smaller companies, laid down hundreds of kilometres of track and built scores of stations at important points. In 1896, a fledgling railway, the Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company, was completed from Gladstone to Dauphin. This stretch of track became the genesis for a major transcontinental service. The company, renamed Canadian Northern in 1899, rivalled the mighty CPR.
As the railway companies extended their lines through the West, each imposed a system that identified certain locations as major and minor distribution centres. The stations were intended through placement and design to make a powerful statement about their place in the local economy and in the community. Stations were often the centre of town, strategically placed at the terminus of a main street.
Dauphin was one of Canadian Northern's most important divisional points. This station, built in 1912, is one of Manitoba's finest pieces of railway architecture, with its impressive size, picturesque roofline, dormers, turrets and decorative brick and stone work.
310 Vaughan Street,
The oldest surviving public school building in Winnipeg, Isbister School was built during the fall and winter of 1898-99 to plans by Samuel Hooper, Provincial Architect of Manitoba from 1904 to 1911. Named for Alexander Kennedy Isbister (1822-1883), the eminent scholar and educator of Scottish and Cree parentage, it was used as a model for a number of Winnipeg Schools built after the turn of the century.
With its picturesque roof line, varied surfaces, round and square-headed windows, columns, pilasters and tower loggia, it incorporates elements from various styles including Romanesque and Queen Anne Revival. In short, it is a fine example of the late Victorian fashion for architectural eclecticism.
|Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus & Mary
432 Joubert Street,
In the Manitoba Francophone community, the convent was second in importance only to the neighbouring church. Though serving as the home of various orders of nuns, the convent was usually designed as the chief educational facility in these small towns. The St. Pierre-Jolys convent is a well-preserved example of such a building, which has been a focus of community life since its erection in 1900 and remains a visible symbol of the survival of the unique Franco-Manitoban culture.
|Gabrielle Roy House
375 rue Deschambault,
The house at 375 rue Deschambault is intimately connected with one of Canada's most important writers: Gabrielle Roy. Gabrielle Roy lived in the house for a total of 28 years, from her birth (1909) until she left St. Boniface, and eventually Manitoba, to pursue her teaching and then her writing careers (1937). It was in this house, and in the St. Boniface neighbourhood, that many of the stories in her books were located. Her Governor-General's award-winning book Street of Riches (in the original French version, Rue Deschambault) is set very specifically at this house.
|Portage la Prairie Indian Residential School
River Lot 51, Crescent Road, Portage la Prairie
This is the oldest existing example in Manitoba of a system of boarding schools for Aboriginal children which was created across Canada between 1883-1960. Financed by the Canadian government, and operated by Canadian churches, the system included 16 schools in Manitoba. As day schools on the reserves improved, residential schools ceased operations, the last Manitoba institution closing in 1988.
Built in 1916, the Portage school is a good example of prevailing ideas concerning residential school design. The building has grand and impressive facades, composed with a restrained classical vocabulary. Inside, more functional spaces provided rooms for girls' and boys' classrooms and dormitories, as well as recreation spaces, infirmaries and a variety of offices. The site, which like most residential schools, was developed to provide instruction on farming and domestic work and still maintains its original quality.
|Little Britain United Church
R.M. of St. Andrews
Little Britain United Church, built between 1872 and 1874, is the oldest United Church building in Manitoba. Initially Presbyterian, the original congregation was served by Reverend John Black. He was the first Presbyterian minister at the Selkirk Settlement. The church was constructed by John Clouston and Duncan McRae. They were two of the most important stonemasons of the era. The tower was added in 1920, a memorial to the dead of World War One. Only five stone churches from the Red River Settlement era remain in Manitoba.
102 Pacific Avenue,
This residence was constructed in 1872 for F.W. Colcleugh, one of Selkirk's pioneer residents and one of its most prominent civic-minded citizens. Mr. Colcleugh, a pharmacist, enjoyed many distinctions, including being the first Fire Chief and an early mayor of Selkirk. He also served several terms as a member of the Manitoba Legislature. Later owners of the property included Dr. Cruikshank, a popular veterinarian serving the NWMP post that was at one time situated in nearby Lower Fort Garry.
One of Selkirk's oldest surviving buildings, the former Colcleugh House is an excellent (and remarkably well-preserved) example of the kind of houses favoured during the 1870s and 1880s. It is a storey and a half and built on a side-hall plan. The house is constructed using "balloon" frame construction, a distinctive technique of the late nineteenth century that featured the use of long dimensioned lumber that stretched the height of the house.
|Virden Canadian Pacific Railway Station
425 - 6th Avenue South,
During the summer of 1883, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) main line crossed Gopher Creek about 65 kilometres from the present Saskatchewan border. The siding, with a bridge, small station and water tower, was named Virden, after the country estate of The Duke of Manchester, a major CPR shareholder. Within a few years, a thriving community had established itself on the townsite surveyed by the CPR.
By 1899 Virden had grown to such an extent that plans were made to replace the original station with a larger, more modern, facility. Built in 1906, the picturesque design for the new depot was a product of R.B. Pratt, a notable station designer, first with the CPR and then for their rival, Canadian Northern. The Virden station was from a standardized set of plans, used on several other Manitoba stations. The design was distinguished by its remarkable roof, an impressive and complicated composition with dormers and beak-like canopies. The Virden Station is the only one in Manitoba constructed of fieldstone.
|Selkirk Post Office and Customs Building
406 Main Street,
Selkirk's steady growth in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries prompted local authorities to agitate for the construction of a public building, one that would combine all Dominion offices under one roof-fisheries, North West Mounted Police, customs and of course a post office. Designed by architect James Chisholm and Son of Winnipeg, working from Department of Public Works specifications, the building rose between 1907 and 1909, constructed by the Brown and Garson Construction Company.
The structure is a modest expression of the then-popular Classical Revival style of architecture. The elaborate cornice, radiating voussoir window keystones and use of brick string courses are all elements of that style.
Although converted into a rooming house during the 1960s, and laying vacant in recent years, the interior details and floor plans remained intact. In 1989 the building was rehabilitated to accommodate offices, an art gallery and a restaurant.
99 Euclid Avenue,
This is one of Winnipeg's earliest buildings, constructed in 1862 by E.L. Barber (1834-1909) and continuously occupied for over one hundred years. Of American birth, Barber established prosperous mercantile and real estate ventures in the Red River Settlement. He laid out many of the streets in Point Douglas, then the estate of his father-in-law, Robert Logan (1773-1866), a fur trader who became a prominent settler and a councillor of Assiniboia.
In 1870 Dr. John Schultz fled to this house after escaping Louis Riel's forces at Upper Fort Garry. Barber, Schultz's real estate partner, smuggled him out of the colony.
|Portage Land Titles Building
103 - 3rd Street N.E.,
Portage la Prairie
As Manitoba expanded during the last decades of the 19th century, a variety of government services-post offices, court houses, jails, and land titles offices-were placed in strategic centres. The competition for such services was intense, as these services not only provided economic benefits, but also confirmed local status. While land titles buildings were typically more modest than other government buildings, they were nevertheless given considerable attention in their appearance. The former Portage Land Titles Building, constructed in 1889, is a fine example of this building type. The original design came from E. F. Head, but was ultimately considered too plain in its façade design, and was refronted by Provincial Architect Samuel Hooper in 1906. Although modest in size, Hooper gave the building Neo-Classical distinction with a pedimented entrance, a deep cornice supported by brick pilasters and urns on the parapet.
|St. Mary's la Prairie Anglican Church
36 Second Street SW,
Portage la Prairie
St. Mary's la Prairie Anglican Church was constructed in 1898. It is the third church built for the Parish of Portage la Prairie, which was founded by Archdeacon William Cockran in 1853. Archdeacon Cockran was an important missionary whose work at the Red River Settlement helped establish the Anglican Church in the West.
The present church, designed by noted Winnipeg architect H.S. Griffith, is one of the finest examples of Gothic Revival architecture in Manitoba. At the Portage la Prairie church, architect Griffith used the standard vocabulary of the style: rough stone walls, a steep roof and the pointed arch for window and door openings. But Griffith gave the building more power and delight with a unique assemblage of forms at the main entrance, where the church's bell is also housed. The church is just as impressive inside, with stained glass memorial windows, fine woodwork in the pews, pulpit, and altar, and dark-coloured ceiling with the impressive open wood trusses.
|Pipestone Municipal Building
401 - 3rd Avenue,
As Manitoba's young communities took shape in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a variety of public services were quickly added to the building fabric: a fire hall, perhaps a police station, maybe a jail, and of course a town hall. The Rural Municipality of Pipestone was incorporated in 1893 but it was not until 1917, with the construction of the Pipestone Municipal Building, that a formal civic presence was created for the citizens. Brandon architect William A. Elliott and builder A.H. Bushy of Reston created a fine brick structure. Elliott's design is unusual for this type of building; where others were often based on the Classical Revival this building is derived from the more informal Italianate villa style, with its broad roof overhang and corner tower. The building is an elegant expression of the municipality's pride and confidence.
|St. Michael's Ukrainian Catholic Church
Trembowla District, R.M. of Dauphin
This, the oldest remaining Ukrainian Catholic church in Canada, was constructed in 1898. The Ukrainian pioneers who built it arrived in the Valley River area in 1896. They persuaded Nestor Dmytriw, editor of the American newspaper Svoboda, to visit them while on a Canadian tour, and it was here that he conducted the first Ukrainian Catholic mass in Canada. That mass, celebrated in the spring of 1897, was held in a home at what is now called the Cross of Freedom Site. Dmytriw encouraged the congregation to build a church, which they did the following year.
St. Michael's is architecturally modest. Built of logs and covered with wooden siding, it's very small, measuring only 4 by 5 metres (12 by 15 feet). However, the interior is a remarkable example of Byzantine-style icon painting and decoration. The church, which has been threatened over the years by rural road development, has been moved twice, finally finding this safe haven through the dedication of local heritage enthusiasts.
|Winnipeg Beach Canadian Pacific Railway Water Tower
In 1900, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) purchased 32 acres of undeveloped shoreline 65 kilometres north of Winnipeg on the southwestern shore of Lake Winnipeg and commenced construction of what would become one of western Canada's premiere resort facilities. In addition to the attraction of a three-kilometre stretch of sandy beach, the CPR also built and offered an array of accommodation, recreation, and amusement facilities. By 1910, between 12 to 15 trains were carrying over 40,000 passengers a day on holiday weekends to the popular resort. The romance of Winnipeg Beach began to wane during the 1950s and although the beach itself still remained a popular destination, in 1964 the amusement park was permanently closed.
Of the many recreation and railway related structures erected by the CPR at Winnipeg Beach, only the steel water tower survives. It was designed and constructed in 1928 by the Vulcan Iron Works Ltd. of Winnipeg. Utilitarian in design and appearance, the 40-metre high tower supported a 90,000-litre capacity tank, and provided a source of pressurized water for the CPR steam locomotives, and fire protection services for the resort's facilities. Non-operational since the resort closed, the structure is the best example of only five surviving riveted-steel water towers in Manitoba. As in its heyday, the tower is a prominent visual landmark in and around the beach community.
|St. Peter Dynevor Anglican Church
River Lot 212, St. Peter Parish, Stone Church Road,
R.M. of St. Clements
This church was built in 1853 under the personal direction of Archdeacon William Cockran. The foundation stone was laid May 23 by Bishop David Anderson, who gave the church its name. It replaced an earlier one built in 1836 a little to the south of the new site. It served the Aboriginal settlement of the same name established here in 1834, the first attempt at an Aboriginal agricultural community in Western Canada.
Chief Peguis led a band of his people to the Red River area around 1800. He also assisted the settlers in retreating from Red River after the Seven Oaks Incident in 1816. He died in his 90th year on Sept. 28, 1864, and the most humble and the most notable figures in the land gathered for his funeral. Two archdeacons presided at his burial in the church-yard at St. Peters.
|Display Building Number II
Brandon Exhibition Grounds,
Established in 1882, Brandon soon became one of the foremost agricultural exhibition centres in Western Canada. In 1913 the city was the site of the Dominion Fair.
Display Building Number II was constructed in that year to promote agricultural and manufacturing innovations from across Canada. The structure is a rare surviving example of agricultural buildings constructed in Manitoba. It was designed by Walter H. Shillinglaw and David Marshall, two prominent Brandon architects. This building has been used continuously for exhibition purposes for The Provincial Exhibition of Manitoba. In scale and composition the building is typical of the Beaux-Arts Classicism style of architecture popular for monumental buildings around the turn of the century.
|Great-West Life Building
177 Lombard Avenue,
Constructed between 1909 and 1911, this building was designed by one of Manitoba's foremost architects, J.D. Atchison, who had trained and practised in Chicago. Built as The Great-West Life Assurance Company's first permanent headquarters, its construction materials were principally of Canadian origin. The Neo-Classical facade is of Kootenay marble from British Columbia, a quality material rarely used for Prairie office buildings. Originally raised as a four-storey structure with provisions for an additional ten floors, only four stories were added in 1922-23.
Incorporated in 189l, Great-West Life was for many years the only Winnipeg-based life insurance company, and was symbolic of Manitoba's growing importance in Canadian affairs. The Company moved to larger new quarters in 1959.
|Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception
Construction of this church began in 1930. The exterior painting and elaborate interior decoration, mainly by local amateur artists, began in 1938 when the structure was completed. This work was well advanced in 1952 when the church was consecrated. The design is the work of Philip Ruh, O.M.I. (1883-1962). He was responsible for planning at least 30 Ukrainian Catholic churches in Canada, 13 of which survive in Manitoba. Ruh worked alongside his congregation at Cooks Creek in building this church, the largest of his remaining creations in Manitoba.
Ruh also foresaw construction of the adjoining Grotto, a representation in concrete of the Grotto at Lourdes, France. He died before its completion and is buried in the nearby cemetery.